Holocaust-Era Assets

Archives & Records

1. Accumulation of "Nazi Gold" on the occupied territory of Ukraine during World War II. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 9 pp. (Statement of Ukrainian position at the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets).
Note:The Ukraines propose an online international archive directory on Holocaust-Era assets and a consulting board to discuss Holocaust era assets.
Filed in Library at U2.

2. Archival repositories in Germany. War Department Pamphlet No. 31-180. Washington: War Department, 1944. 124 pp.
Note: This list of archival repositories designating repositories according to their importance was prepared by the National Archives.
Shelved in the Library at CD 1221.U59 1944.

3. Auer, Leopold. The status of restitution since 1945: successes and failures. Washington: International Council on Archives, 1995. 8 pp. (Presentation at XXXIst International Conference of the Round Table on Archives, "War, Archives, and the Comity of Nations, 1st working session, "Protection of Records During War", Washington, September 6-9, 1995).
Note: The largest movement of archives was accomplished during WWII for reasons of intelligence, politics, ideology, military strategy, as well as the need to be used to prepare for the Nuremberg trials. Following the war, the Allies returned archives to friendly countries: France, Belgium and The Netherlands; records were returned to Italy and the Soviet Union at a later time. German records were taken to England and the US, but restitution was mostly accomplished between 1951 and 1968. Not returned were Baltic materials because the Western powers did not recognize the Russian annexation of the Baltics; in turn, the Soviets created a top secret Special Archive in Moscow with documents from Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland and Romania. Auer called for unrestricted access to displaced archives for the sake of scholarly research, in microform copies if necessary.
Shelved in the Library at CD923.I55 1995.

4. Auer, Leopold. Disputed archival claims. Analysis of an international survey: a RAMP study. CH-98\WS\9. Paris: UNESCO, 1998. 29 pp.
Note: Despite international recommendations, there has been no agreement on guidelines for dealing with disputed archival claims and the potential restitution of the archives. This analysis and evaluation is based upon responses to a worldwide survey of existing international archival claims. The conclusion suggests that an international committee similar to that of UNESCO for the restitution of cultural property including the restitution of displaced archives might be useful.

5. Bako, Elemer. "Past and present Hungarian archival collections". American Archivist 20, no.3(July 1957): 201-208.
Note: This article presents a brief history of the archival movement in Hungary with a focus on the radical changes made under Communism after WWII.
Journal holdings kept in the NARA Library.

6. Born, Lester K. "The archives and libraries of postwar Germany". American Historical Review 56(October 1950): 34-57.
Note: A scholarly article about the fate of research material in Germany, Dr. Born's essay provides information about the damage suffered by archives and libraries in Germany.

7. Born, Lester K. "Archives and war". Indian Archives 4, no.2(July-December 1950): 150-159.
Note: Basing his essay on his five-year wartime experience as an Archives Officer, the author suggests that the cause of archives demands the acceptance of certain axioms: first, rank is presumed to convey knowledge, therefore civilian specialists should be given rank adequate to their position and responsibilities in the future; secondly, rank and knowledge unsupported by authority are ineffectual; specialists should be permanently assigned to field commands, not be assigned temporarily; and, objectives cannot be met without adequate positions, equipment, and mobility.

8. Bradsher, Greg. "Searching for documents on Nazi Gold". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration 3, no.5(May 1997): 5-6, 23-24.
Note: In 1944, the US initiated a "Safehaven Program", involving a number of federal agencies, to identify and stop the movement of Nazi assets out of Germany so that the Allies would be able to recover and repatriate them. Records of these activities and those of reparation groups at the end of the war make up a tremendous store of information relating to Holocaust assets in the holdings of the National Archives at College Park. Recent interest in these records has resulted in increased research activity at Archives II.
Filed in Library at B7.

9. Bradsher, Greg. "Documenting Nazi plunder of European art: records in the National Archives provide research base for tracking works seized during war". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration 4, no.2(November 1997): 7, 9.
Note: Bradsher gives details about the participation of US government groups in WWII cultural restitution activities that led to the great number of records collected in the National Archives at College Park.

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10. Bradsher, Greg. "Searching for records relating to Nazi Gold: Part II". The Record: News from the National Archives and Records Administration 4, no.5(November 1997): 7-11, 46.
Note: Greg Bradsher's overview of Nazi Gold research activities at NARA notes that the number of researchers looking at looted assets issues has grown mightily since researchers from Senator D'Amato's office began working at Archives II in early 1996. At the behest of President Clinton, an Interagency Group on Nazi Assets, including NARA, issued its first report on Allied efforts to restore assets stolen by Nazis during the war; the report included Bradsher's 300-page NARA finding aid to the records at Archives II.

11. Browder, George C. "Captured German and other nations' documents in the Special Archive Moscow". Central European History 24(1992): 424-445.
Note: Information about the German archives seized by the Red Army at the end of WWII.

12. Casanova, Eugenio. "Gli archivi nei trattati internazionali (Archives in international treaties)". Archivi Italiani 5(1918): 179-201.

13. Casanova, Eugenio. "Rivendicazioni archivistiche dall'Austria (Archival revendications from Austria)". Archivi Italiani 8(1921): 89-94.

14. "Compensation and mitigating war damage to documents". Law times(London) 190(December 7, 1940): 293-294.
Note: A discussion of the legal issues related to securing compensation with reference to wills, settlements, land titles, litigation papers, etc.

15. Coughlin, Ellen K. "Newly opened archives of former Soviet Union provide opportunities for research unthinkable a few years ago". Chronicle of Higher Education 30(May 27, 1992): A8.

16. Davies, Robert W. "The battle for the archives". In Soviet history in the Yeltsin Era, 81-114. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
Note: An assessment of archival developments in Russia since the end of the Cold War.

17. Decker, Andrew. "Moving toward restitution". ARTnews 98, no.1(January 1999): 60.
Note: Austria has passed legislation that would allow the return of artworks to Holocaust victims.
Filed in Library at D11.

18. Filangieri, Riccardo. "Report on the destruction by the Germans, September 30, 1943, of the depository of priceless historical records of the Naples State Archives". American Archivist 7, no.4(October 1944): 252-255.
Note: A copy of this report was given to American archivist Fred W. Shipman when he served in Italy during WWII.

19. Freitag, Gabriele. "Archival material on National Socialist Art plundering during the Second World War". Spoils of War no. 1(December 1995): 34-36.
Note: Archival material on Nazi art plundering is widely dispersed. The ERR records are found in a number of German locations, as well as Paris, Kiev, Riga and Moscow.
Journal is kept in the National Archives Library.

20. Friedman, Max P. Holocaust-era assets, the archives and non-archival resources. Washington: Max P. Friedman, 1998. 4-page typescript (Paper presented at the Holocaust-Era Assets Symposium, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland, December 4, 1998).
Note: This paper relates the stories of individual Holocaust-era survivors and how their tales relate to the documents residing in archives.
Filed in Library at F4.

21. Gagliardo, John. "Archives in East Germany". American Archivist 20, no.3(July 1957): 209-213.
Note: In 1956, the author worked in archives in Potsdam and Magdeburg archives in East Germany. He describes in this article the administration of archives in East German and the importance of organizing documents misplaced or separated from their registers during WWII.
Journal holdings kept in the National Archives Library.

22. Getty, J. Arch. "Guide to the Smolensk Archive". In A researcher's guide to sources on Soviet social history in the 1930s, 84-96. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1989.

23. Giles, Robert S. Archival and library restitution in the United States Zone of Germany: a preliminary study. Washington: American School of Social Sciences, 1947.

24. Grenzer, Andreas. "The Russian archives and their files: researching the Soviet losses of property". Spoils of War no. 1(December 1995): 33-34.
Note: Although much of the Soviet archives is now open, researchers have found very little record material on Soviet losses of cultural property.
Journal is kept in the National Archives Library.

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25. Grenzer, Andreas. "Report on the archive situation in Russia as relates to researching the losses of cultural property". In Cultural treasures moved because of the war: a cultural legacy of the Second World war: documentation and research on losses, 142-145. Bremen: Koordinierungsstelle der Länder, 1995. (Documentation of the International Meeting in Bremen, November 30 to December 2, 1994).
Note: Some of the Soviet archives are only now being accessed in terms of researching the losses of cultural property.

26. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. Intellectual access to post-Soviet archives: what is to be done. Princeton: International Research & Exchanges Board, 1992.

27. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. Archival Rossica abroad - rationalizing the search and retrieval of the Russian archival legacy. Research paper. Amsterdam: International Institute for Social History, 1999 forthcoming.

28. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "The fate of Ukranian cultural treasures during World War II: archives, libraries, and museums under the Third Reich". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 39, no.1(1991): 53-80.

29. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "New revelations on archival evacuation and destruction of Ukrainian Archives at the beginning of World War II". Arkhivy Ukrainy(1994).

30. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. Displaced archives on the Eastern Front: restitution problems from World War II and its aftermath. Research Paper no. 18. Amsterdam: International Institute for Social History, 1995. 36 pp. (Republished in Contemporary European History 6:1(March 1997)).

31. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Displaced archives on the Eastern Front: restitution problems from World War II and its aftermath". Contemporary European History 6, no.1(1997): 27-74.

32. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Increasing reference access to post-1991 Russian archives". Slavic Review 56, no.4(Winter 1997): 718-759.
Note: Inspite of economic problems, the Federal Archival Service of Russia (Rosarkhiv) has made progress toward open archival access. This article offers an overview of state of archival reference in Russia with emphasis on the growing need for greater intellectual access brought on by increasing demands for ready access to records. A Rosarkhiv plan for a computerized fond-level archival information system has been initiated which is potentially compatible with the MARC AMC format. In parallel with the fond-level project, the ArcheoBiblioBase (ABB) interagency directory-level database offers basic repository-level and bibliographic reference data.
Filed in the Library at G1; parts of this article update the author's work, Intellectual access to Post-Soviet Archives: what is to be done? Princeton: IREX, 1992; also see Grimsted's, A handbook for archival research in the USSR, Washington: IREX and Kennan Institute for Advanced Russiand Studies, 1989, chapter 3.

33. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Archival Rossica/Sovietica Abroad - provenance or pertinence, bibliographic and descriptive needs". Cahiers du Monde russe et soviétique 34, no.3(1993): 431-480.
Note: Interested in repatriating foreign archives in their possession, Russian archivists are trying to negotiate exchanges of displaced Russian records for the archival holdings of other countries.

34. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. The odyssey of the Smolensk Archive: plundered Communist records for the service of anti-Communism. Occasional Papers in Russian and East European Studies no 1201. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Center for Russian and East European Studies, 1995.

35. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. Archives of Russia five years after: 'purveyors of sensations' or shadows cast to the past'? Research paper no. 26. Amsterdam: International Institute of Social History, 1997. 220-page looseleaf.
Shelved in library at CD1710.G75 1997.

36. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy and Vladimir Petrovich Kozlov. Archives of Russia: a directory and bibliographic guide of repositories in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997. 1040 pp.
Note: This directory to over 260 repositories in Moscow and St. Petersburg was compiled from the output from the ArcheoBiblioBase database. It includes repository information and bibliographic information including finding aids for the individual repositories.

37. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Captured archives and restitution problems on the Eastern Front: beyond the Bard Graduate Center Symposium". In The spoils of war - World War II and its aftermath: the loss, reappearance, and recovery of cultural property, 244-251. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. (Paper presented at international symposium, The Spoils of War, sponsored by Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, New York, January, 1995).
Note: Grimsted clarifies the political and historiographic need to repatriate displaced archives.

38. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Russian archives in transition: caught between political crossfire and economic crisis". American Archivist 56, no.4(Fall 1993): 614-661. (Versions of this article have been published by IREX).
Note: Part of a series on archival development, this article resulted from the author's experience in Russia during 1992, where she helped to establish a computerized database, the ArcheoBiblioBase, to produce a directory and bibliographic finding aids for archives and manuscript repositories in Russia. She writes of the pressure on the Russian archives, before the archival system can handle the demands.

39. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Beyond Perestroka: Soviet-area archives after the August coup". American Archivist 55, no.1(Winter 1992): 94-124. (An expanded and updated version of this article has been published by IREX).
Note: This article discusses archival development in Russia through 1991; displaced records, both Russian records abroad and foreign records captured by the Red Army in WWII; the problems effecting record access in Russia; and, a summary of foreign assistance.

40. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Glasnost' in the archives: recent developments on the Soviet archival scene". American Archivist 52, no.2(Spring 1989): 214-236.
Note: Soviet archivists and researchers are looking to a new spirit of historical awareness to penetrate and transform the functions and mandates of archival service (from article abstract).

41. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. "Perestroika in the archives? Further efforts at Soviet archival reform". American Archivist 54, no.1(Winter 1991): 70-95.
Note: The new openness in Soviet society in recent years has led to dramatic changes in Soviet archives. There has been tremendous progress in normalization of access and working conditions, along with an increase in foreign projects and collaborative ventures, although some archives still retain the characteristics of a closed society (from article abstract).

42. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. New clues to Nazi archival and library plunder - the ERR Raciborz Center and the RSHA Amt VII in Silesia. Research paper. Washington: Cold War International History Project, 1999 forthcoming.

43. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy. Archives of Russia seven years after: 'purveyors of sensations' or 'shadows cast to the past'? Working Paper #20, Part I. Washington: Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1998. 209 pp. (A reprint of the earlier Archives of Russia five years after with a new Chapter 12).
Shelved in library at CD1710.G75 1997.

44. Guide to the Special Archive. Moscow: MediaLingua and Classica, 1997. http://www.archives.ru Website.
Note: The Special Archive is a unique, quite recently declassified archive, containing millions of documents seized by the Nazis from 1939 to 1945, as well as German archives, taken out from Germany by Stalin after WWII. Included among the holdings are information on Rosenberg's index on cultural objects of occupied Soviet regions, information on slave labor in Germany, and material on looted art.

45. Hertz, Deborah. "The Varnhagen Collection is in Krakow". American Archivist 44, no.3(Summer 1981): 223-228.
Note: This valuable manuscript collection spent most of WWII in a Benedictine monastery in a German-held part of Silesia which was ceded to Poland at the end of the war. The Varnhagan Collection, an independent treasure, contained the papers of over 9000 German intellectuals including Goethe, von Humboldt, Hegel, and Karl Marx. In late 1970s, the collection was found to be almost completely intact in a library in Krakow, Poland.

46. Heufs, Anja. "Archives in the Federal Republic of Germany on art theft: an overall view". In Cultural treasures moved because of the war: a cultural legacy of the Second World war: documentation and research on losses, 135-141. Bremen: Koordinierungsstelle der Länder, 1995. (Documentation of the International Meeting in Bremen, November 30 to December 2, 1994).
Note: Article focuses on the archival material in the FRG containing material relevant to the issue of Nazi art theft.

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47. Holmes, Oliver W. "The National Archives and the protection of records". American Archivist 9, no.1(April 1946): 110-117. (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of American Archivists, Indianapolis, November 6, 1945).
Note: Holmes tells of the part played by NARA in seeing that records in war areas were given necessary protection. Working with the Commmittee on the Protectin of Cultural Treasures in War Areas, established by the Council of Learned Societies in early 1943, under Dr. William Bell Dinsmoor, staff of the National Archives, primarily Dr. Ernst Posner, compiled lists of archival repositories in Europe that were distributed to the armed forces. Also during that year, archivists were first sent out with the troops to protect records taken into custody. Later Sargent B. Child, former director of the Historic Records Survey, was sent as American archives adviser in the European theater.

48. Howe, Desson. "A wealth of new information on Holocaust: declassified bank, other wartime papers at Archives generate lots of interest". Washington Post(November 18, 1998): B1, B8.
Note: This article focuses on the importance of archival records to the study of Holocaust history; because of NARA records, the economic history of WWII is being told, as well as the full level of knowledge and complicity on the part of business, financial, and political leaders.
Filed in the Library at H30.

49. Jenkinson, Hilary and H. E. Bell. Italian archives during the war and its close. London: HMSO, 1947. 55 pp.
Note: The first part is a review of precautions taken by Italian civil officials, as well as the Vatican; protective measures undertaken by the Germans and the Allies, including instructions issued to American forces in Italy regarding cultural treasures; and, extensive reports on losses and damage. The second part reviews the state of Italian archives after the war's end.

50. Kecskeméti, Charles. "Displaced European archives: is it time for a post-war settlement?". American Archivist 55, no.1(1992): 132-140.
Note: With the current political transitions in Europe, the relocation of national, regional, and ethnic archives is once again a timely issue. The author provides a historical analysis of the development in Europe of the archival principles of provenance and pertinence, as they have been challenged and used over the centuries for political gain in the displacement and reclaiming of records. In anticipation of Europe moving beyond the archival standstill of the après-guerre, the author foresees both the inevitable problems and the necessary precondtions for a replevin program of a multinational magnitude (article summary).

51. Kecskeméti, Charles. Archival claims: preliminary study on the principles and criteria to be applied in negotiations. Paris: UNESCO, 1977. 32 pp.

52. Koht, Halvedan. "The present state of Czechoslovakian archives". American Archivist 8, no.1(January 1945): 19-25.

53. Kolanoviae, J. "Holocaust in Croatia: documentation and research perspectives". Arhivski vjesnik (Zagreb) 39(1998): 157-174.
Note: Basic data on the archives concenring the holocaust of the Jews in Croatia during WWII and the fate of their property.

54. Kramer, Mark. "Archival research in Moscow: progress and pitfalls". CWIHP Bulletin 1, no.3(Fall 1993): 18-39.
Note: Kramer focuses on archival developments in Russia during 1993, as well as the issue of access to Cold War topics.

55. Kramer, Mark. "New sources on the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslavakia". CWIHP Bulletin 2(Fall 1992): 35.

56. Latham, Ernest Tyger ". Conducting research at the National Archives into art looting, recovery, and restitution, 6-page typescript. Washington: Ernest "Tyger" Latham, 1998. (Paper presented at the Holocaust-Era Assets Symposium, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland, December 4, 1998).
Note: Tyger Latham tells of his research experience at the National Archives and Records Administration's College Park facility working with records related to looted art, its recovery, and its restitution.
Filed at L1.
Online: Tyger Latham's Paper.

57. Leonard, D. G. "Archives, bibliothèques et oeuvres d'art en Italie durant la guerre (Archives, libraries and artworks in Italy during the war)". Revue historique (Paris) 202(July 1949): 24-51.
Note: A review of the damage done in Italy during WWII with a list of damaged monuments and works of art.

58. Martin, Dirk. "German archives in Moscow concerning Belgium during the Second World War". Spoils of War no. 1(December 1995): 31-33.
Note: Belgian archivists, pessimistic about an early return of Belgium material in German archives in Moscow due to Russia's internal situation, have gone to Moscow to investigate the files and start making photocopies.
Journal is kept in the National Archives Library.
Online: http://www.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/.

59. Martin, Dirk. "Recovery of Belgian archives lost during the Second World War". In Cultural treasures moved because of the war: a cultural legacy of the Second World war: documentation and research on losses, 23-27. Bremen: Koordinierungsstelle der Länder, 1995. (Documentation of the International Meeting in Bremen, November 30 to December 2, 1994).

60. McCleary, Frank. "Nazi records are a mystery for archivist". Examiner(September 18, 1998).

61. Miller, Page Putnam. "National Archives provides leadership in making accessible records related to Nazi gold". NCC Washington Update 3, no.6(February 18, 1997): 1.
Note: Miller praises NARA's efforts to make its holdings accessbile to Nazi gold researchers.
Filed in Library at M13.

62. Milton, Sybil H. "Lost, stolen, and strayed: the archival heritage of modern German-Jewish history". In The Jewish response to German culture: from the Enlightenment to the Second World War, 317-335. Hanover: Published for Clark University by University Press of New England, 1985. (Essays based on papers delivered at the International Conference on German Jews, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, October 8-11, 1983).
Note: This essay addresses the need to make the documents of German Jewry, now scattered about the world, more accessible to scholars.

63. Milton, Sylvia. "Lost, stolen, and strayed: the archival heritage of modern German-Jewish history". In The Jewish response to German culture: from the Enlightenment to the Second World War. Hanover: Published for Clark University by University Press of New England, 1985. 317-335 (Essays based on papers delivered at the International Conference on German Jews, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, October 8-11, 1983).
Note: Current records tend to be fragmented due to migratory patterns of residence, education, and employment. For German Judaica, Jewish separateness in Germany resulted in two parallel types of agencies: state repositories and private institutions. Milton traces the plight of Jewish central depository records, captured German records, and personal papers.

64. Molotsky, Irvin. "Over here, paper chase for Nazi gold: at a Maryland archive, searching for assets and a view of neutrality". New York Times International(March 30, 1997): 6.
Note: Report on the number of researchers searching for information about WWII looted assets in the National Archives and Records Administration.
Filed in Library at M11.

65. ""Nazi Gold" from Ukraine: a guide to archival sources". In Accumulation of "Nazi Gold" on the occupied territory of Ukraine during World War II. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 9 pp. (Statement of Ukrainian position at the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets).
Note: The Ukraines propose an online international archive directory on Holocaust-Era assets and a consulting board to discuss Holocaust era assets.
Filed in Library at U2.

66. Obrman, Jan. "Moscow reveals documents on 1968 invasion of Czechoslavakia". RFE/RL Research Report 1(September 18, 1992): 16-19.

67. Oldenhage, Klaus. The fate of German contemporary records after World War II. n.p.: ICA, 1986. (Paper presented at 10th International Congress on Archives, Bonn, 1984; German original published in Archivum 32(1986): 303-309).

68. Pawlikowski, John. "Pius XII & the Jews: further research, please". Commonweal 125, no.13(July 17, 1998): 8+.
Note: Archival research on the position of Pope Pius XII is needed to clarify his position re the Holocaust. The Vatican should make those materials available for examination.

69. Phillips, Geraldine N. Duplication before restitution: costs and benefits: the US experience. Washington: International Council on Archives, 1995. 11 pp. (Presentation at XXXIst International Conference of the Round Table on Archives, "War, Archives, and the Comity of Nations, 1st working session, "Protection of Records During War", Washington, September 6-9. 1995).
Note: The U.S. has microfilmed records of foreign governments that have come into its custody to provide access to information needed by scholars and to show that the holdings were once in US custody. This presentation covers the microfilming of records restituted to Germany, Grenada, Poland and the Soviet Union.
Conference proceedings are shelved in the National Archives Library at CD923.I55 1995.

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70. Pillak, Peep. "Reforms in Estonian archives". American Archivist 53(Fall 1990): 576-581.
Note: Story of the shift from a centralized archival structure to republic-based control in the Soviet Union even before the collapse of the Union.

71. Poliensky, J. V. "The present state of Czechoslovakian archives". American Archivist 11, no.3(July 1948): 223-226.

72. Pomrenze, Seymour J. "Policies and procedures for the protection, use, and return of captured German records". In Captured German and related records, 5-30. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1974. (Paper presented at a National Archives Conference, Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on Captured German and Related Records, Washington, DC, November 12-13, 1968).
Note: A detailed explanation of how captured German records were protected and used during and after World War II leads into a very informative section on the return of captured records after World War II. Returning the 25,000 linear feet of captured records to Germany necessitated declassification, microfilming, and scheduling.

73. Posner, Ernst. Memorandum concerning the protection and salvage of cultural objects and records in war areas. Washington: American Council of Learned Societies, 1944. 10 pp.
Note: The memorandum, prepared by Dr. Posner for the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in Europe, was created as a guide to provide monuments officers of tactical units with a general description of depositories of books, manuscripts, archives, and records in prospective war areas and to acquaint them with first-aid measures for the protection and salvage of their contents.
Shelved in the National Archives Library at Y3Am3(4)M533.

74. Posner, Ernst. "Effects of changes of sovereignty on archives". In Archives and the public interest: selected essays by Ernst Posner, 168-181. Washington: n.p., 1967. (Presented before the Society of American Archivists, Hartford, Connecticut, October 7, 1941, published in the American Archivist, July 1942, and reprinted in the Indian Archives, July 1947.).
Note: This is a Festschrift for Posner, a German Jew, who had to resign Staatsarchiv administrative duties in 1933 and leave government service entirely in 1935. Arrested during the Kristalnacht pogrom, Posner was detained for six weeks; once freed, he was able to relocate to the US in 1939 for a second career in teaching archival administration and history. Posner's essay on sovereignty traces the history of archival problems due to territorial changes and relates the hope that existing national repositories will not be broken up, that the files of central agencies will be left untouched. Posner looks to microphotography as a possible solution for providing copies in the cases of multiple successor states.
Posner's essay on sovereignty is included in this Festschrift shelved in the National Archives Library at CD935.P6.

75. Posner, Ernst. "Public records under military occupation". In Archives and the public interest: selected essays by Ernst Posner, 182-197. Washington: n.p., 1967. (Address to the staff of the National Archives on May 5, 1943; first issued as National Archives Miscellaneous Processed Document 43-13; republished in the American Historical Review, January 1944.).
Note: This volume is a Festschrift for Posner, a German Jew, who had to resign Staatsrchiv administrative duties in 1933 and leave government service entirely in 1935. Arrested during the Krystallnacht pogrom, Posner was detained for six weeks; once freed, he was able to relocate to the US in 1939 for a second career in teaching archival administration and history. In this essay looking forward to Allied victory, Posner traces the history of plunder during war, noting that only since the 18th century have such practices given way to recognition of the privileged character of national treasures as stated in the Hague Conventions.
Posner's essay on military occupation is included in this Festschrift shelved in the National Archives Library at CD935.P6.

76. Posner, Ernst. "Public records under military occupation". American Historical Review 49(January 1944): 213-221.
Note: The author writes on guarding private and public records during WWII and cites the example of the German use of Polish records as pointing out the thorough organization and use of archives by an occupying force.

77. Poste, Leslie. The development of U.S. protection of libraries and archives in Europe during World War II. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1958. 427 leaves (PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1958).
Note: Focuses on the legal and historical precedents for restitution.

78. Poste, Leslie. "Archives under attack". Library Journal 83, no.13(July 1958): 1987-1993. (Based on Poste's PhD dissertation from the University of Chicago, The development of U.S. protection of libraries and archives in Europe during World War II.).
Note: Focuses on the legal and historical precedents for restitution.

79. Preservation and use of key records in Germany. War Department Pamphlet No. 31-123. Washington: War Department, 1944. 91 pp.
Note: This guide for members of the military on how to handle German government and Nazi Party records was compiled by NARA in cooperation with other agencies.
Shelved in library at D802.G3U59 1944.

80. Re, Emilio. "The Italian archives during the war". American Archivist 11, no.2(April 1948): 99-114.

81. Ross, Marvin C. "The Germans and their archives". American Archivist 9(January 1946): 89-91.
Note: Ross, a member of the staff of Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore, served as deputy adviser to the MFA&A at SHAEF. In this note, he writes about German policy in establishing priorities of importance for archival materials to be retained.

82. A selection of resources regarding Holocaust-Era Assets. Los Angeles: Getty Information Institute, 1998. 2 pp.
Note: This 2-page release focuses on personal papers related to holocaust era assets with URLs for online catalogs of additional information.
Filed in Library at G4.

83. Slany, William Z. Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act - HR 4007. Washington: State Department, 1998. 2 pp. (Testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology of the House Government Reform and Oversight Committee, Washington, DC, July 14, 1994).
Note: William Slany, Historian of the Department of State, testified about the recent achievements of federal agencies, including the National Archives and Records Administration, regarding Holocaust-Era Assets. He cautions that declassification of, and public access to, the full official U.S. historical record of the Nazi era is essential. Historian Slany notes that resources will be needed if agencies are to meet the costs of declassifying and making accessible these records.
Filed in library at S19.
Online: http://www.state.gov/www/policy_remarks/1998/980714_slany_nazi.html.

84. Somerville, Sean. "Suing for reparations". Baltimore Sun(January 17, 1999): 1D, 4D.
Note: The success of lawsuits against Swiss banks has given new impetus to war-crimes class action suits. Along with the success of litigation, the flow of government records from archives making public tens of thousands of documents classified from WWII through the Cold War is working to make courts a popular political forum for groups with grievances.

85. Steenhaut, Wouter and Michel Vermote. Microfilming in Moscow. Ghent: Archive and Museum of the Socialist Labour Movement, Undated.
Note: The Centre for the Preservation of Historico-Documentary Collections (TsKhlDK), now part of the Russian State Military Archive (RGVA), was the former top-secret Special Archive established in Moscow in 1946 to house foreign archival loot. TsKhlDK published a finding-aid brochure on its holdings of Belgian origin, a portion of which were microfilmed at Belgian expense and now accessble to the public at the Archives and Museum of the Socialist Labor Movement. It is estimated that the microfilm project concerns hardly a tenth of the Belgian archive treasure taken from the Germans by the Red Army in 1945.
Filed in Library at S1.
Online: http://dig.dhh-3.de/biblio/bremen/sow2/microfilm.html.

86. Steenhaut, Wouter and Michel Vermote. "Microfilming in Moscow". Spoils of War no. 2(July 1996): 37-38.
Note: The Russians published a finding-aid brochure on its holdings of Belgian origin, a portion of which were microfilmed at Belgian expense and are now accessible at the Archives and Museum of the Socialist Labor Movement. It is estimated that the microfilming project involved less than the Belgian archive treasure taken from the Germans in 1945 by the Red Army.
Spoils of War is among National Archives Library's periodical holdings.

87. Taylor, Telford. "The use of captured German and related records in the Nürnberg War Crimes Trials". In Captured German and related records, 92-100. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1974. (Paper presented at a National Archives Conference, Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on Captured German and Related Records, Washington, DC, November 12-13, 1968).
Note: Captured German records were used extensively in preparing the documentation for the war crimes trials.

88. Vanni, Robert J. Archives and books. Washington: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1998. 2 pp. (Statement at the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets).
Note: The author separates the materials being discussed into two categories: first, book and library materials; second, archives and records. Submitting that the latter are unique among captured assets in that they have little intrinsic monetary value, but they have great value because of the information and intellectual conent preserved in them.
Filed in Library at v2.

89. Varon, Elana. "NARA web site to aid Holocaust asset research". Federal Computer Week(December 7, 1998): 8.
Note: This article on the NARA web site unveiled at the Holocaust-Era Assets Symposium describes the site's features and notes that one historian said, "They've created a little research nucleus. If I were starting to look at this for the first time, as a place to begin, it's really unmatched.".
Filed in the Library at V4.

90. War damage to libraries and archives in Europe and the Far East. Washington: American Council of Learned Societies Devoted to Humanistic Studies. Committee for the Protection of Cultural Treasures in War Areas, 1944.
Note: This is a factual statement based on information on the war damage to libraries and archives during WWII in Western Europe, China, and the Philippines. It is an interim report with supplements expected.
Shelved in NARA Library at D810.D6.W35 1944.

91. Whitehead, Peter. "The lost Berlin manuscripts". Notes: The Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association(33): 7-15.
Note: At the end of WWII, when the decision was made to return disperse archival materials to their original institution, there were two Germanies. The materials were dispersed to East or West Germany according to their hiding places.

92. Wolfe, Robert, ed. Captured German and related records, 29, 279. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1974. (National Archives Conference, Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on Captured German and Related Records, Washington, DC, November 12-13, 1968).
Note: The National Archives and Records Administration inherited the captured German and other WWII enemy records from the Defense Department and the State Department in the late 1950s. This 1968 conference report includes a comprehensive published list of captured records filmed by the Allies and held in Berlin, England, and the US.

93. Wolfe, Robert. "Sharing records of mutual archival concern to the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America". Archivum 32(1986): 292-302.

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