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Selected Records Relating to Enumeration of Pueblo Indians, 1790-1939

Spanish and Mexican Census Records

Although the National Archives rarely has records other than those created by the United States Federal government, we have a bound volume published by the New Mexico Genealogical Society shelved with the census book indexes in the Research Center in the National Archives Building containing information collected from several Spanish and Mexican enumerations of the population of New Mexico.

Spanish and Mexican Colonial Censuses of New Mexico: 1790, 1823, 1845: Each census is arranged by village or pueblo, and contains varying personal information. The volume has a comprehensive name index.

Federal Censuses (RG 29)

1850-1870 New Mexico Territory Censuses:  Arranged by county then village or Pueblo. The schedules provide name, relation to head of household and, often, age.  Although the indication of race is often unreliable, many Pueblo are listed as non-white.  The racial designation of inhabitants of Taos Pueblo, for example, is "copper" in the 1850 Census and "Indian" in the 1860 and 1870 Censuses.  Not all Pueblo are included in the book indexes; see Ancestry.com for a more complete index.

Microfilm Publication Title Microfilm Pub ID / Catalog Info Online Catalog Descriptions

1850 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 467-470.

M432:
M432A
M432B
M432C
M432D
M432E
M432F
View series in the Online Catalog

1860 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 712-716.

M653:
M653A
M653B
M653C
M653D
M653E
M653F
M653G
M653H

 

1870 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 893-897.

M593:
M593A
M593B
M593C
M593D
M593E
M593F
M593G
M593H
M593I

 

1880 New Mexico Territory Census: Enumerations of Pueblo Indians conclude each county. Information provided is similar to above: "I" indicates Indian race. Literacy and birthplace of parents are often mentioned. There is a Soundex index for families with children under the age of ten; the Archives Library Information Center has a CD-ROM index for all people included in the 1880 census.

Microfilm Publication Title Microfilm Pub ID / Catalog Info Online Catalog Descriptions

1880 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 802-804.

T9:
T9A
T9B
T9C
T9D
T9E
T9F
T9G
T9H

 

1885 New Mexico Territorial Census: Arranged by county, then Pueblo or reservation, providing name, age, occupation, literacy, birthplace and parents’ birthplace. Agricultural, Manufacture, and Mortality Schedules (persons deceased in 1884) follow the Inhabitant’s Schedule for each county. There is no index.

Microfilm Publication Title Microfilm Pub ID / Catalog Info Online Catalog Descriptions

1885 Territorial Census

M486  

1900 and 1910 New Mexico Territory Censuses: Special Indian Schedules follow non-Indian pages in relevant enumeration districts. These censuses indicate the individual’s tribe, fraction of Indian blood and citizenship. There is a Soundex index for 1900, and there is a CD-ROM index available in the Archives Library Information Center for 1910.

Microfilm Publication Title Microfilm Pub ID / Catalog Info Online Catalog Descriptions

1900 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 999-1003.

T623:
T623A
T623B
T623C
T623D
T623E
T623F
T623G
T623H
T623I
T623J

 

1910 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 913-919.

T624:
T624A
T624B
T624C
T624D
T624E
T624F
T624G
T624H
T624I

 

1930 New Mexico Census: Pueblos and reservations are listed as enumeration districts amidst the appropriate counties. reservations are listed as enumeration districts amidst the appropriate counties. Ancestry.com has an index for New Mexico. Ancestry.com has an index for New Mexico.

Microfilm Publication Title Microfilm Pub ID / Catalog Info Online Catalog Descriptions

1930 Census

Note: New Mexico is on rolls 1392-1400.

T626:
T626A
T626B
T626C
T626D
T626E
T626F
T626G
T626H
T626I
T626J
T626K
T626L
T626M
T626N
View series in the Online Catalog

Bureau of Indian Affairs Census Records (RG 75)

Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940: Compiled by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and arranged by Indian agency jurisdiction and year. Informational categories vary, but may include degree of Indian Blood, marital status and place of residences, along with name, age, and relation to the head of household. There are no indexes.

Microfilm Publication Title Microfilm Pub ID / Catalog Info Online Catalog Descriptions

Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940

M595:
M595A
M595B
M595C
M595D
View series in the Online Catalog

Relevant jurisdictions are:

  • Albuquerque School, 1904-7 & 1910-11 (Roll 1)
  • Northern Pueblo, 1920-30 (Rolls 308-310)
  • Pueblo, 1885-92 (Rolls 396-400)
  • Pueblo Day Schools, 1913-19 (Rolls 404-406)
  • Santa Fe, 1904, 1906, 1910-14 & 1931-35 (Rolls 472-474)
  • Southern Pueblo, 1920-35 (Rolls 532-542)
  • United Pueblo, 1936-39 (Rolls 624-627)
  • Zuni, 1904-5, 1907, 1916-24, 1926-35 (Rolls 689-692)

Additional resources on the National Archives web site:

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