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Photographs of the American West: 1861-1912


Cover photograph: A Pioneer Family in Loup Valley, Nebr., ca. 1886. Cropped from Item 134. (69-N-13606C)

By 1848 the United States had acquired official title to the contigous land stretching westward to the Pacific, south to the Rio Grande, and north to the 49th parallel. Americans had long since explored and settled in many of these areas, but legitimate possession created an impetus for development that began to crystallize as other timely occurrences brought a greater influx of people to the West. The religious persecution of the Mormons had led them to begin their migration westward by this time. The discovery of gold would soon draw thousands more across the country.

This transition from a "wild" western frontier into organized segments of a federal union is documented in photographs. Private citizens and Government officials took the recently developed camera on their western adventures to record nature's curious sights and the marks that they as men and women made on the landscape. It is indeed a wonder that so many photographs have survived the hardships of the western experience, for early negatives were made of large glass plates. Some of these photographs have found their way into the National Archives as record materials of several Federal bureaus and offices, such as the Bureaus of Land Management, Indian Affairs, Public Roads, Weather, Agricultural Economics, and Reclamation; the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Geological Survey, boundary and claims commissions and arbitrations, the Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, and the Signal Corps. The photographs listed below were selected from the records of these agencies now on deposit in the National Archives.

While the records of Federal agencies continue to document changes on the face of western America and the efforts toward effecting some kind of progress, an arbitrary cutoff date of 1912 has been used. At that time Arizona, the last of the contiguous 48 United States, was admitted to the Union. Having arrived at its destiny, the "Wild" West was in a sense officially terminated.

The captions in quotation marks are those of the photographer or the person who cared for the photographs before they came into the custody of the National Archives. Within quoted captions, bracketed material has been added by the compiler. Information following quoted captions and all captions without quotes has been provided by the compiler. The name of the photographer together with the date of the item is given if available. The listings are arranged by subject--such as transportation, lndian life, military life, and mining--and thereunder chronologically. An index appears at the end of the list. The index is arranged by State, the names of which usually are the same as their former territorial designations. Some entries appear under more than one State; others could not be indexed by State.

The back cover of this leaflet explains how to order complete sets of slides of all photographs described in this pamphlet and in the other Select Audiovisual Records leaflets. To order individual prints, negatives, or slides, write to the Still Picture Branch for a current pricelist. Many photographs of the American West are not included in this list. Separate inquiries about them should be as specific as possible, including names, dates, places, and other details.

The research, selection, and arrangement in preparing this select list was done by Charlotte Palmer, who also wrote these introductory remarks.

Contents

How to Order


Interpreters of the Western Experience

1. "Press representatives accompanying excursion party to a point on 100th meridian--275 miles west of Omaha, Nebraska [Terr.]." By John Crbutt for the Union Pacific Railroad, October 24, 1866. 111-SC-85703.

2. Staff of the Daily Reporter in front of their office. Corinne, Boxelder Co., Utah Terr. By William H. Jackson, 1869. 57-HS-718.

3. "Fred W. Loring, in his campaign costume, with his mule `Evil Merodach.' Taken about 48 hours before he was brutally murdered by Apache--Mohaves, while en route from Prescott, A. T. [Ariz. Terr.] to San Bernadino, Cal., by stage. Loring had been with the [Wheeler] expedition as general assistant and correspondent, and was returning to the East with a mind stored with rare adventure and scenic wonders." By Timothy H. O'Sullivan, 1871. 106-WA-145.

4. "McKay, the San Francisco Bulletin correspondent taking notes on the battlefield near Gen. Gillem's camp. At the left are two Warm Springs scouts, on the lookout for Modocs." Modoc Indian War, in California and Oregon lava beds, 1872--73. 111-SC-82307.

5. "Distant view of Ancient Ruins in lower part of Cañon de Chelle [Ariz. Terr.] ... Showing their position in the walls and elevation above bed of cañon." A member of the Wheeler Expedition is sketching the ruins from the foreground of the photograph. By O'Sullivan, 1873. 77-WE-4l.

6. John K. Hillers at work with his negatives. In camp, Aquarius Plateau, Utah Terr. Hillers was a photographer with the John Wesley Powell Geological Survey. By Hillers, ca. 1872. 57-PS-809.

Surveys and Expeditions

7. A member of Clarence King's Geological Exploration of the 40th Parallel is surveying from a rock. Shoshone Canyon and Falls, Idaho Terr., in background. By O'Sullivan, 1868. 77-KS-4412.

8. Timothy O'Sullivan's ambulance wagon and portable darkroom used during the King Survey rolls across the sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev. By O'Sullivan, 1867. 77-KS-346O.

9. A noon meal in Ferdinand V. Hayden's camp of the U.& Geological Survey. Red Buttes, Wyo. Terr., August 24, 1870. Hayden sits at far end of table in dark jacket; W. H. Jackson stands at far right. By Jackson. 57-HS-282.

10. The U.S. Geological and Geophysical Survey of the Territories, conducted by Hayden, en route with pack train upon the trail between the Yellowstone and East Fork Rivers "showing the manner in which all parties traverse these wilds." Wyo. Terr. By Jackson, 1871. 57-HS-414.

11. First camp of the John Wesley Powell expedition, in the willows, Green River, Wyo. Terr. By E. 0. Beaman, 1871. 57-PS-471.

12. An overland caravan laden with boats. Robert B. Stanton's Denver, Colorado Canyon, and Pacific Railway Survey, 1889-90. 57-RS-97.

13. "Rebuilding Monument 40." By D. H. Payne, under the direction of the U.S. section of the International Boundary Commission, along the Mexican border west of the Rio Grande, 1892--94. 77-MB-442D.

Paths of Persistence

14. "Frank E. Webner, pony express rider~," ca. 1861. 30-N-49426.

15. Directors of the Union Pacific Railroad on the 100th meridian approximately 250 miles west of Omaha, Nebr. Terr. The train in background awaits the party of Eastern capitalists, newspapermen, and other prominent figures invited by the railroad executives. By John Carbutt, October 1866. 111-SC-85700.

16. "End of the Track. Near Humboldt River Canyon, Nevada." Campsite and train of the Central Pacific Railroad at foot of mountains, 1868. By Alfred A. Hart. 165-XS-28

17. Joining the tracks for the first transcontinental railroad, Promontory, Utah, Terr., 1869. 30-N-36-2994.

18. "The overland stage road between Ogden and Helena crossing the Beaver Head River at Point of Rocks ... by means of a plank bridge." By Jackson, 1871. 79-JAG-9.

19. Column of cavalry, artillery, and wagons, commanded by Gen. George A. Custer, crossing the plains of Dakota Territory. By W. H. Illingworth, 1874 Black Hills expedition. 77-HQ-264-854.

20. Cinching and loading pack mule with flour during starvation march of Gen. George Crook's expedition into the Black Hills. By S. J. Morrow, 1876. 165-FF-2F-14.

21. Horsedrawn stretcher carrying a wounded man from the Battle of Slim Buttes, Dak. Terr. By Morrow, 1876. 111-SC-85704.

22. "The Rosebud, historic old Missouri River boat that went up the River from Bismark, N.D. to Coalbanks in Montana, head of navigation." ca. 1878. 111-SC-83 751.

23. "Mormon emigrants." Photograph of covered wagon caravan by C. W. Carter ca. 1879. 165-XS-7

24. Ox train used to transport supplies in Arizona Territory, 1883. 111-SC-89099.

25. "Government pack mules and packers". Photograph taken near Mexican border 1883. 111-SC-89096.

26. Co. B~ 10th Infantry~, crossing Gila River in buckboard wagons near San Carlos, Ariz. Terr., ca. 1885. 111-SC-89105.

27. Typical stage of the Concord type used by express companies on the overland trails. Soldiers guard from atop, ca. 1869. 111-SC-87712.

28. Climbing Pike's Peak, Colorado, in winter, rounding Windy Point, ca. 1890. 111-SC-87350.

29. Steamer Bessie on the Rio Grande River loading up at Fort Ringgold, Tex., en route to Brownsville, ca. 1890. 92-F-95-19A.

30. Laying tracks on the extreme front of Prescott and Eastern Railroad in Arizona Territory, ca. 1898. 92-F-79B-21.

31. Construction workers on the military road, from Fort Washakie to Buffalo Fork near the Continental Divide, drive their wagonload of equipment up the summit of To-Gwo-Tee Pass, Wyo. Terr., 1898. 77-H-3155-3.

32. "Pieces all saved." Man with parts of his wagon and equipment on muddy floor of Canyon de Chelly, Navajo Reservation, Ariz. Terr. By D. Griffiths, September 13--19, 1903. 83-FB-2033.

33. "Two common methods of hauling water in Old Mexico and southwestern United States ... Encinal, Tex., 1905." 30-N-36791.

34. A rider fills his keg from a desert well 30 miles north of Palomas, Ariz. Terr. His horse refreshes himself nearby. By Stanton G. Smith, April 5, 1907. 95-FP-3-11.

35. "Steamer Expansion; makes weekly trips on the Yellowstone River between Mondak and Glendive, Montana." The riverboat also carried freight for the lower Yellowstone reclamation project. August 9, 1907. 115-JM-264.

36. Discovery party and horses on hot, slick rocks west of Navajo Mountain on their way to Rainbow Bridge, Utah. By Neil M. Judd, August 13, 1909. 200-NJ-302.

37. Automobile helped through sandy wash onto mesa, 7 miles northwest of Yuma, Calif. by A. L. Westgard, November 20, 1911. 30-N-7O89.

38. Buckboard and coaches zigzagging down the "W" Pike's Peak carriage road, Colorado, 1911. 30-N-618O.

39. An AAA Good Roads Official on his transcontinental auto trip passes the only road sign in evidence along the dusty, desolate road near Glendive, Mont. By A. L. Westgard, July 1912. 30-N-8940.

40. Noon camp of a surveying outfit, southwest part of Jornada Range Reserve, New Mexico, October 17, 1912. 83-FB-8341.

41. Members of the Denver Motor Club and Chamber of Commerce test-driving the Denver to Salt Lake Exposition route near De Beque, Colo. By A. L. Westgard, October 1912. 30-N-9O14.

42. Covered wagon with jackrabbit mules encounters an automobile on the trail near Big Springs, Nebr. By A. L. Westgard, 1912. 30-N-9OO6.

Soldiering in the West

43. An afternoon of croquet. Ladies, gentlemen, and children on the lawn at Fort Bridger, Wyo. Terr., ca. 1873. Officers' quarters at left, hospital and men's barracks to the right in background. 111-SC-88170.

44. "Brig. Gen. Frank Wheaton, U.S. Army [standing center with white plume in hat], with officers and members of their families, Fort Walla Walla, Wash. Terr., 1874~." 111-SC-83652.

45. A panoramic view of the camp at Hidden Wood Creek. By Illingworth, 1874, during Custer's Black Hills expedition. 77-HQ-264-801.

46. "Our First Grizzly, killed by Gen. Custer and Col. Ludlow." By lllingworth, 1874, during Black Hills expedition. 77-HQ-264-847.

47. Hunting and camping party of Custer (standing in center) and invited guests. Fort A. Lincoln on the Little Heart River, Dak. Terr., 1875. 111-SC-83991.

48. Valentine T. McGillycuddy, surgeon and topographer on hunger march with General Crook's expedition to the Black Hills, Dak. Terr., 1876. 165-FF-2F-2.

49. "Gen. Crook's headquarters in the field at Whitewood [Dak. Terr.]. On starvation march 1876." Closeup of a camp scene shows tents improvised from wagon frames during the Black Hills expedition. 165-FF-2F-12.

50. "Scene of Gen. Custer's last stand, looking in the direction of the ford and the Indian village." A pile of bones on the Little Big Horn battlefield is all that remains, ca. 1877. 111-SC-82966.

51. General view of the corral and surrounding area at Camp Apache, Ariz. Terr., 1877. 111-SC-83709.

52. "Officers quarters at Ft. Rawlins, Wyoming, May 7, 1877." Two men and a woman holding a baby sit in front of the crude structure. 111-SC-98367.

53. "Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877." 111-SC-87810.

54. "Heliographic station #3 Bowie District system [Ariz. Terr.] ... Used exclusively in the Apache Indian War." ca. 1885. 111-SC-85746.

55. Sixth Cavalry training horses at Ft. Bayard, N. M., ca. 1885. 111-SC-83340.

56. "Junction of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers near Ft. Snelling, Minnesota. Headquarters of the 25th Infantry, ca. 1886." Romantic view showing young woman looking wistfully at the fort across the river. 111-SC-83746.

57. Troop`C,' 5th Cavalry, which arrested boomers and squatters prior to opening of Oklahoma, ca. 1888. 111-SC-87369.

58. Crude building under construction at Fort Keogh, Mont., ca. 1889. 111-SC-97321.

59. "Skating party, Ft. Keogh, Mont., about 1890." 111-SC-97995.

60. Officers in tent by fire during the Pine Ridge campaign, 1890--91. 111-SC-104138

61. "Return of Casey's scouts from the fight at Wounded Knee, 1890--91." Soldiers on horseback plod through the snow. 111-SC-97980.

62. "Brig. Gen. Nelson A. Miles and Buffalo Bill viewing hostile Indian camp near Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota." By Grabill, January 16, 1891. 111-SC-85680.

63. "The Good Old Days-canteen at Ft. Keogh, Mont., 1890-94;" 111-SC-97981.

64. "German Singing Society, 22nd Infantry, Ft. Keogh, May 13, 1894." An open-air songfest. 111-SC-9 7983.

The Disinherited

65. "Gen. William T. Sherman and commissioners in council with Indian chiefs at Ft. Laramie, Wyo.." ca. 1867-68. 111-SC-95986.

66. "Drawing rations at the agency on issue day." Indians form a line while officers' wives and issuing agent stand in center with sacks of flour at Camp Supply, Indian Terr. [now Oklahoma], ca. 1871. 165-AI-2.

67. "Blacksmithing at the Indian training school, Forest Grove, Ore., 1882." 75-lP-1-23.

68. Indian reception of President Chester A. Arthur at Fort Washakie, Wyo. Terr.,1883. 165-FF-9G-3.

69. Band of Apache Indian prisoners at rest stop beside Southern Pacific Railway, near Nueces River, Tex., September 10, 1886. Among those on their way to exile in Florida are Natchez (center front) and, to the right, Geronimo and his son in matching shirts. By A. J. McDonald. 106-BAE-251 7A.

70. "Makah tribe of Indians from Nee-oh Bay resting on the beach at Port Townsend [Wash.] while en route for the hop fields up Pudget-Sound. Photo by J. M. McMurry." ca. 1890. 22-MPF-1.

71. "Big Foot, leader of the Sioux, captured at the battle of Wounded Knee, S.D." Here he lies frozen on the snow-covered battlefield where he died, 1890. 111-SC-82412.

72. "Villa of Brule. The great hostile Indian camp on River Brule near Pine Ridge, S. D." By Grabill, 1891. 111-SC-85685

73. "Shoshone Indians at Ft. Washakie, Wyoming Indian reservation .. . Chief Washakie (at left) extends his right arm." Some of the Shoshones are dancing as the soldiers look on, 1892. 111-SC-8 7800

74. "Saber Exercises, Troop 'List Cavalry, Ft. Custer Mont., 1892." An Indian troop of U.S. soldiers. 111-SC-104128

75. "Apache Indians delivering hay, Fort Apache, Ariz., 1893." 111-SC-104113

76. "Indian Day parade, Omaha, Neb., Aug. 4, 1898." 111-SC-82401

77. "A Council with the Agent in 1900." Cheyenne and Arapaho lndians at Seger Colony, Okla. Terr. 75-SE-5

78. "Indian teams hauling 60 miles to market the 1100 bushels of wheat raised by the school. It brought four cents more than wheat raised by white farmers near by and was sold for seed." Seger Colony, Okla. Terr., ca. 1900. 75-SE-39A

79. The William B. Douglas party, including Navaho and Paiute Indians, celebrate their discovery of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, as they eat watermelon in Paiute Canyon, 1909. By Judd, 200-NJ-301.

The Law of the West

80. "Clifton, Arizona, jail. Built about 1881 by Lezinsky Bros., original owners of the copper mines at Clifton. Contract for blasting cells in face of cliff secured by a Mexican, Margarito Barela, who was its first prisoner imprisoned for a`shooting up' celebration." 111-SC-89496

81. "The lynching of John Heith at Tombstone, Arizona, Feb. 22, 1884. He was implicated in the robbery of the Goldwater-Castan[e]da store in Dec. 1883, wherein there were three men and one woman killed. The other five men were apprehended and legally hanged at Tombstone, March 6, 1884." 111-SC-93377

82. "Dodge City [Kans.] Peace Commissioners. L to R: Chas. Bassett, W. H. Harris, Wyatt Earp, Luke Short, L. McLean, Bat Masterson, Neal Brown." By Camillus S. Fly, ca. 1890. 111-SC-94129

83. Wooden jailhouse in Wyoming Territory. By C. Hart Merriam, 1893. 22-WB-886

84. "Judge Roy Bean, the `Law West of the Pecos,' holding court at the old town of Langtry, Texas in 1900, trying a horse thief. This building was courthouse and saloon. No other peace officers in the locality at that time." 111-SC-93343

85. "Black Jack Ketchum getting fitted with a new necktie." He is being hanged at Clayton, N. Mex. Terr., 1901. 111-SC-93358

86. "John Sontag of the firm of `Evans & Sontag' of Calif. fame. Sontag was shot to death about Sept. 14, 1904. He was not yet dead when this picture was taken." 111-SC-93363.

Life from the Land

87. "This picture, taken by [Eadweard] Muybridge, of San Francisco, at Buena Vista Vineyard, Sonoma, California, in the early 1870's, was captioned `Champagne Corking.' It shows a shed where various processes of disgorging, perfecting the fill and recorking were carried on. The man inspecting the labeled bottle is B. E. Auger for many years an officer and trustee of the Buena Vista Vinicultural Society. Wicker baskets shown were woven by Chinese employees of the vineyard society; the finished champagne was packed in them for the market. The box near the disgorging apparatus bears the words, `National Grape' the name of one of Buena Vista's champagnes. The building at the rear of the shed is the brandy distillery operated in conjunction with the winery." 208-CN-8644

88. "Interior of Sawtell's Ranch." Men gathered around fireplace, Henry's Lake, Fremont County, Idaho Terr., 1872. By Jackson. 57-HS-950

89. "A Montana ranch, comfortable if not elegant, and the home of many well-to-do persons engaged in mining or stock-raising." By Jackson, 1872. 57-HS-15.

90. "Trail of the hide hunters." Buffalo lying dead in snow, 1872. 79-M-1B-4

91. "Rath & Wright's buffalo hide yard in 1878, showing 40,000 buffalo hides, Dodge City, Kansas." 79-M-1B-3

92. "Irrigation ditch under construction at San Carlos Indian Agency, Arizona-1 886." 111-SC-83712

93. "Mormons at Mormon Dairy." Two women and their small children pose before a building at what is now known as Mormon Lake, Ariz. Terr. By E. A. Ames, 1887--89. 108-FAA-40B

94. "Some of [Aztec's] Punchers." Aztec Land & Cattle Company, Holbrook, Ariz. Terr. By Ames, 1877--89. 106-FAA-92B

95. "Lamon's log cabin, the first built in Yosemite Valley, Calif." Their work completed, two men sit on stumps in front of the finished product, ca. 1895. 200-M-15

96. A family group poses with dog, Indian domestic, and young children outside a log cabin in New Mexico Territory, ca. 1895. 111-SC-89608

97. "Cattle Ranch, Graham Co. Ariz." Dude with his lassoed steer ca. 1896--97. 48-RST-3B-1

98. "Oklahoma Cotton Field." Overseer and Negro cottonpickers, ca. 1897--98. 48-RST-7B-41

99. "Cattle Round Up." Close view of a steer downed for branding, ca. 1896--99, Arizona Territory. 48-RST-3B-6

100. "Residence of G. L. Rule Feb. 18, 1898. Have lived here since Sept. 1893." Family stands in foreground; sod building and cabin in background, Arizona Territory. 48-RST-7B-4

101. "Picking cherries on an Oklahoma Fruit Ranch." A baby in a stroller watches the busy family at work, ca. 1900. Copy of halftone. 48-RST-7B-23

102. "Gathering the Fruits of an Oklahoma Farm--Apples, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Grapes, and Melons." Children at their chores, ca. 1900. 48-RST-7B-28

103. Roundup on the Sherman Ranch, Genesee, Kans. Cowboy with lasso readied looks beyond the herd on the open range to his fellow cowpunchers waiting on the horizon, ca. 1902. 165-XS-27

104. Panoramic view of California wheatfield, windmill, and ranch buildings at foot of mountains. By C. Hart Merriam, 1903. 22-WB-6681

105. "Inside view of Cold Springs reservoir." A panoramic view of men at work on the Umatilla reclamation project in Oregon. Horsedrawn carts, a train, and a crane are diverse technological applications in this irrigation project. By William J. Lubkin, September 17, 1907. 115-JAE-239

106. "Trappers and hunters in the Four Peaks country on Brown's Basin [Ariz. Terr.]. Two Crab Tree boys, their father and the dogs and burrows [sic] which they hunt with. Their cabin is located on Long Creek, at the entrance of Hell's Hip Pocket in Brown's Basin, between Four Peaks and Salt River." By Lubkin, January 1908. 115-JAA-2667

107. Buffalo grazing near buffalo yards, Wichita National Forest, Okla., March 11, 1908. 95-G-76223

108. "Turning over first sod on homestead." Sun River Mont. By Lubkin, November 5, 1908. 115-JA~D-176

109. "Hancock homestead. Settler from Benson, Minn." Little girl feeding chickens against background of house, buckboard wagon, and ridge of plateau, Sun River, Mont. By Lubkin, June 23, 1910. 115-JAD-224.

Life by the Sea

110. "N. P. Railway, Tacoma [Wash. Terr.] Shipping first cargo of halibut caught in Puget Sounds by crew of schooner Oscar and Hattie. September 20, 1888." By N. B. Miller. 22-FA-197

111. "Husking shrimps--treading out dried shrimps, San Francisco Bay, 1888--89." By Charles H. Townsend. 22-FA-139

112. "Chinese drying shrimps and mending nets, ca. 1889." San Francisco Bay By Townsend. 22-FA-148

113. View of Chinese fishing camp against a hillside. Drying grounds, nets cast out to sea, and shanties hugging the shoreline. Point San Pedro, San Francisco Bay, ca. 1889. By Townsend. 22-FA-145

114. "[Reeling] up a gill net. To dry." Near San Francisco, ca. 1891. 22-CA-223

115. Italian fishermen mending nets on wharf at foot of Union Street in San Francisco. Boats are lined up on the wharf for painting and repairs, ca. 1891. By Townsend. 22-MDF-3

116. Fishermen's Wharf at foot of Union Street, San Francisco. Circular crab nets and large fish nets are spread out to dry. A three--masted ship is on distant horizon and small feluccas thrust protruding masts and graffs above the wharf's railing, ca. 1891. By Townsend. 22-MDF-2

117. "On the wharves, San Francisco, 1900." Moored schooners' masts form a wall around the dock. By Henry G. Peabody. 79-HPA-3-22

118. "Sardine Industry: Wharf and sun dry process." Monterey, Calif., ca. 1908. 22-FFC-756.

119. "Baird, Calif. Hauling seine." ca. 1908. 22-FFB-892.

Bonanzas from the Earth

120. Goldhill, Nev. General view of the town and mines. By O'Sullivan, 1867--68. 77-KN-127

121. Orena, Nev., Montezuma silver smelting works. Ox teams and men at rest. By O'Sullivan, 1867. 77-KN-83

122. Miner working inside the Comstock Mine, Virginia City, Nev. Taken by O'Sullivan using the glare of burning magnesium for a flash of light, 1867--68. 77-KS-1-15

123. Cars coming out of shaft, Comstock Mine, Virginia City, Nev. By O'Sullivan, 1867-68. 77-KS-1-13

124. Hydraulic gold mining near Virginia City, Mont. Terr. A flume is laid upon bedrock in the bottom of Alder Gulch and the waters of the creek brought through it, carrying the auriferous sand. The sides of the gulch are washed away into sluiceboxes where the gold is collected. By Jackson, 1871. 57-HS-62

125. Panning for gold near Virginia City, Mont. Terr. By Jackson, 1871. 57-HS-909

126. Man with a rocker cradling for gold near Virginia City, Mont. Terr. By Jackson, 1871. 57-HS-910

127. Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. The ground is strewn with boulders and detached masses of granite, which have fallen from the walls of Cottonwood Canyon. The quarrying consists of splitting up the blocks. 1872. 57-HS-932

128. "Camp of the Miners of the North Star and Mountaineer Lodes, on King Solomon Mountain, above Cunningham Gulch." By Jackson, 1875, in San Juan County, Colo. Terr. 57-HS-566

129. Mining crew drifting for gold below discovery point, Deadwood, Dak. Terr. Bystanders pose for photographer S. J. Morrow, ca. 1876. 165-FF-2F-10

130. Ore teams on a dusty road, Pinal Co., Ariz. Terr., ca. 1897. 48-RST-4D-1

131. Panoramic view of reduction works and copper mines, Globe, Ariz. Terr., ca. 1898--99. 48-RST-4D-12

132. Loading coal in the strip pits, Wilburton, Indian Terr. [Oklahoma], ca. 1898. 48-RST-5A-2

133. The Mesabi Range. A panoramic view of the Shenango iron mine, ca. 1910. Beginning in 1892, the rich Mesabi Range in northern Minnesota was a major source of high--grade iron ore. 6~4-CN-7318.

The Scramble for Newly Opened Lands

134. "The Covered Wagon of the Great Western Migration. 1886 in Loup Valley, Nebr." A family poses with the wagon in which they live and travel daily during their pursuit of a homestead. 69-N-13606C

135. "Looking For A Town Lot." Guthrie, Ind. Terr. [Oklahoma], ca. 1889. 48-RST-7B-79

136. "Holding Down A Lot In Guthrie." By C. P. Rich, ca. 1889. 48-RST-7B-77

137. "First Blacksmith Shop in Guthrie." ca. 1889. 48-RST-7B-76

138. "Boomers Camp. Arkansas Cty., Kan. Waiting For the Strip To Open Mar. 1st, 1893." 49-AR-18

139. "The Nine Booths at Orlando [Okla. Terr.] Sept. 15th, (18)'93, Where 36,000 Registered." 49-AR-19b

140. "First train [and wagons] leaving the line north of Orlando For Perry [Okla. Terr.], Sept. 16, 1893." 49-AR-7

141. "In Line At The land Office, Perry, Sept. 23, 1893. 9 o'clock A.M. waiting to file." 49-AR-32

142. "Hells Half--Acre, Perry, 0.(kla). T(err)., 93." 49-AR-28

143. "Wild West Hotel, Calamity Av., Perry, 0. T., Sept. 93." 49-AR-22

144. W. H. McCoy's claim, Perry, Okla. Terr., October 1, 1893. 49-AR-36

145. "Clerical force & U.S. Deputy Marshalls, U.S. Land Office, Perry, Okla. Ter. Oct. 12, 1893." 49-AR-35

146. "Anadarko Townsite [Okla. Terr.] Aug. 6, [1901]--a cornfield." 48-RST-7B-81

147. Anadarko Townsite, Okla. Terr., August 8, 1901. Tent city in the cornfield. 48-RST-7B-86

148. Anadarko Townsite, August 8, 1901. Auction in progress in lumber company booth. Temporary bank buildings and the beginnings of a lodging house nearby. 48-RST-7B-80

149. "Bankers' and Railroad Men's Party on Blue Grass Lawn at Calexico." The California Development Co. was in hopes that after this campout the men would invest in Imperial Valley schemes, ca. 1904. 48-RST-7-17

150. "First Auction Sale of Lots at Imperial April 12, 1904." Inside the tent with the California Development Co. and hopeful landowners. 48-RST-7-25.

Towns out of Dust and Rock

151. "East Side of Plaza, Santa Fe, N. M." 1866. 165-FF-7B-1

152. View of Virginia City, Nev. , from a nearby hillside, 1867--68. By O'Sullivan. 77-KN-93 1/2

153. "Street view in Corinne, Boxelder Co., Utah." Close-up view of several shops. By Jackson, 1869. 57-HS-716

154. "Cheyenne, Wyo., 1876." General view of this town on the Oregon Trail. 111-SC-100867

155. "Deadwood in 1876." General view of the Dakota Territory gold rush town from a hillside above. By S. J. Morrow. 165-FF-2F-15

156. "Gayville in Deadwood Gulch, Black Hills [Dak. Terr.], 1876." Log cabins under construction at the foot of a hillside. 111-SC-100863

157. "Gardiner Park Co., Montana, Looking North East, 1887." A onesided street backed up to rocky foothills. 49-RST-8D-1

158. Oklahoma City, lnd. Terr., in 1889 showing U.S. Government dwellings, water tank, railroad station, hotel, post office and store, stage stables, tents of 13th Infantry detachment guarding lumber and an uncompleted cemetery. 111-SC-87337

159. "Birds Eye View of Winslow, looking East." Atlantic and Pacific Railway cars on converging tracks in the foreground of the arid Arizona terrain, ca. 1890. 48-RST-3A-12

160. "Harrison Ave Guthrie [Okla. Terr.] looking east from 1st St., May, (18)'93." 48-RST-7B-41

161. "General view of North West Round Pond from Court House Square." Panoramic view of Oklahoma Territory flatlands. By Mr. and Mrs. Robert Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-64

162. "Sand storm that passed over Midland, Texas, February 20, 1894 at 6:00 p.m." Windmills and houses visible just below the whirling sand. 27-S-2

163. "Nogales, Santa Cruz Co. Showing boundary line between Arizona and Mexico." General view of center of town from hillside, looking west along International Street, ca. 1898-1899. By W I Neumann. 48-RST-3A-18

164. Flagstaff, Ariz. Terr. Street view of post office, other buildings, and people, with mountains in background, ca. 1899. By G. Ben Wittick, 48-RST-4B-1 7

165. "City of Imperial, from ice plant water tank, July 9, 1904." Panoramic view. 48-RST-7-97A

166. "Cleveland. The City of Oil Derricks." Panoramic view of an Oklahoma Territory town a year after the discovery of oil there. By Dick Man, 1905. 48-RST-7B-69

167. Tent town in a mountain valley in Idaho. By Burt L. Wheeler November 1909. 95-G-77538.

Old Institutions in New Surroundings

168. "Hovey's Dance Hall at Clifton, Arizona. Taken 1884. Anton Muzzonvich next to tree." 11 1-SC-89530

169. "Officers and guests lunch under giant cactus near Fort Thomas, Arizona." February 18, 1886. 111-SC-83730

170. "An Arizona Poker Party, at John Doyle's ranch; Doyle, Judge Brown, and the Prof. [Burrison] at play." By E A. Ames, ca. 1887-89. 106-FAA-1l0

171. "Target shooting, in Arizona." John Doyle's ranch, ca. 1887-89. By Ames. 106-FAA-102.

172. "First water works of Perry [Okla. Terr.]. Martin Bro's. Prop., Oct. 10th, 93." 49-AR-31

173. "Guthrie Cotton Market." Peak of trading on Harrison Avenue is captured by Photographer Swearingen, after 1893. 48-RST-7B-36

174. Close-up view of Broadway Street, Round Pond, Okla. Terr. Shopkeepers and customers pose in doorways. By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-47

175. At work in McDonald's Brickyard. Round Pond, Okla. Terr. By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-25

176. In front of the Central Hotel, Round Pond, Okla. Terr. By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-50

177. In the furniture and undertaking business, Broadway Street, Round Pond, Okla. Terr. By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-48

178. "[The] English Kitchen, meals 20 cts. Broadway St., Round Pond, Okla." By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-46

179. "Claims bought and sold. U.S. Land Office practice--contests a specialty." Attorneys and surveyors in front of office, west of Court House Square, Round Pond, Okla. Terr. By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-42

180. Gathered around the kegs at Kelley's saloon "The Bijou." Round Pond, Okla. Terr. By Kennett, January 1894. 233-TRP-43

181. Teacher and children in front of sod schoolhouse. Woods Co., Okla. Terr., ca. 1895. 48-RST-7B-97

182. "Territorial University at Norman." Oklahoma Terr., ca. 1897-98. 48RST-7B-95

183. "A Mesa Creek Valley rancher's daughter en route to school." The little girl on her burro takes leave of her mother for the day. Battlement Mesa Reserve, Colo. By George B. Sudworth, ca. 1898. 95-FRC-366

184. "Sunday school, Indians and white[s]." Indian Territory [Oklahoma], ca. 1900. 48-RST-5B-10

185. "Orient Saloon at Bisbee, Arizona... Faro game in full blast. Recognized: Left to right-Tony Downs (standing with derby) part owner; Doyle, a concert hall singer at corner of table, sitting, with derby; back of him standing is Dutch Kid; Sleepy Dick, the porter, to right with light felt; Charlie Bassett, with soft felt hat in rear next to wall; dealer is Johnny Murphy, and Smiley Lewis in silk hat." By C. 5. Fly, ca. 1900. 111-SC-93344

186. "Cliff House and Seal Rocks." An outing at the beach in San Francisco. By Peabody, 1902. 79-HPA-1-47

187. "Saloons and disreputable places of Hazen [Nev.] June 24, 1905." By Lubkin. 115-JQ-390

188. "Her daily duty." Cow with seven small boys on her back poses in front of schoolhouse in Okanogan, Wash. By Frank Matsura, 1907. 115-JT-385

189. Children in their Sunday clothes pose in front of adobe church, Alamo National Forest, N. Mex. Terr. [now Lincoln National Forest]. By A. M. Neal, May 13, 1908. 95-G-75383

190. Townspeople of Ehrenburg, Ariz. Terr., greet a stranger in an automobile on his pioneer cross country tour. Saloon in background. By A. L. Westgard, ca. 1911. 30-N-2803.

Celebration of the American Spirit

191. Civil War Veterans, Fourth of July or Decoration Day, Ortonville, Minnesota. On review in center of town, ca. 1880. 200-M-112.

192. "Parade of U.S. Infantry through Kearney, Nebraska, 1888." 165-FF-6G-6

193. "In Wind Cave, S.D. 350 feet below the surface at Odd Fellows' Hall." William Jennings Bryan and Governor Lee in center front of group. By W. R. Cross, ca. 1897. 48-RST-5D-1

194. "Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park." American flags flap in the breeze as holiday passengers arrive. The stage coaches are met by other vacationers on the hotel veranda. By F. Jay Haynes, ca. 1899. 48-RST-8B-1

195. "Col. Roosevelt, Reno, Nev." Campaigning from an open touring car decorated with American flags, ca. 1910. Theodore Roosevelt is No. 3; his chauffeur is at the crank. 200-M-104

196. "Dedication ceremonies of Roosevelt dam [Ariz. Terr.], Col. Roosevelt speaking, March 18, 1911." By Lubkin. 115-JAA-2267.

Index

Arizona, 3, 5, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, 51, 53, 54, 75, 80, 81, 92-94, 97, 99,100,106, 130,131, 159, 163,164, 168-171, 185,190, 196
California, 3, 4, 37, 86, 87, 95, 104, 111-119,149, 150, 165, 186
Colorado, 28, 38, 41, 128, 183
Idaho, 7,18, 88,167
Kansas, 82, 91, 103, 138
Minnesota, 56,109, 133, 191
Montana, 18, 22, 35, 39, 50, 58, 59, 63, 64, 74, 89, 108, 109, 124-126,157
Nebraska, 1, 15, 42, 76, 134,192
Nevada, 8, 16, 120-123,152, 187, 195
New Mexico, 40, 55, 85, 96, 151,189
North Dakota, 22, 47
Oklahoma, 57, 66, 77, 78, 98,101, 102, 107,132,135-137, 139-148,158,160, 161,166,172-182, 184
Oregon, 4, 67, 105
South Dakota, 19, 21,49, 62, 71, 72,129, 155,156, 193,194
Texas, 29, 33, 69, 84, 162
Utah, 2, 6, 17, 18, 36, 41, 79,127,153
Washington, 44, 70,110, 188
Wyoming, 9-11, 31, 43, 52, 65, 68, 73, 83, 154



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