June 18, 2004
DID YOU KNOW…. INDEPENDENCE DAY SHOULD ACTUALLY BE JULY 2?
AND OTHER LITTLE KNOWN FACTS ABOUT THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Washington, DC – June 24, 2004 – America’s revolutionary Charter of Freedom, the Declaration of Independence is a document upon which our nation’s founding principles were established. In celebration of Independence Day 2004, the National Archives and Records Administration is hosting "Democracy Starts Here – the National Archives 4th of July Celebration" on the steps of the National Archives on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. This special family-friendly day will feature a dramatic reading of the Declaration of Independence by General George Washington and a special musical performance by the US Army 3rd Infantry "Old Guard" Fife and Drum Corps. History lovers young and old can view the newly-restored Declaration of Independence, and speak with actors playing those who signed this important document! The original Declaration of Independence, which is held in trust for the American people by the National Archives, returned to public display in the Rotunda of the National Archives on September 18, 2003.
The Declaration of Independence set the course for our nation on a journey of freedom, which also led this historic document on its own journey. For example, did you know….:
- Who Authored the Declaration of Independence?>
Thomas Jefferson wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence, which
was then edited by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson took their edits
and incorporated them into what would become the version finally adopted.
- Independence Day Should Have Been July 2
– July 2, 1776 is the day that the Continental Congress actually voted
for independence. John Adams, in his writings, even noted that July 2 would be
remembered in the annals of American history and would be marked with fireworks
and celebrations. The written Declaration of Independence was dated
July 4 but wasn’t actually signed until August 2. Fifty-six delegates eventually
signed the document, although all were not present on that day in August.
- Who Signed and In What Order? –
John Hancock signed first, with a large hand right in the middle because he was
the President of the Congress. The others signed by state delegation, beginning
in the upper right in one column, and then proceeding in five other columns,
arranged from the northernmost state (New Hampshire) to the southernmost (Georgia).
- Who Signed Last? – It is believed
Thomas McKean of Delaware was the last person to sign. When Congress authorized
the printing of an official copy with the names attached in January 1777, McKean's
name was not included. He signed after that date, or the printer made a mistake
by omitting him.
- On The Road Again – The Declaration
of Independence spent many years on the road. After the signing ceremony
on August 2, it was most likely filed in Philadelphia. On December 12, threatened
by the British, Congress adjourned and reconvened 8 days later in Baltimore,
MD, where the document remained until its return to Philadelphia in March of
1777. In the years to follow, it traveled widely with the Continental Congress
throughout the Northeast, then moving to Washington, DC in 1800. In 1814, again
threatened by war, it was moved to an unused gristmill in Virginia for protection.
On August 24, as the British burned the White House, it was moved to Leesburg,
VA until September, when it returned to the nation’s capital. With the exception
of a trip to Philadelphia for the Centennial and to Fort Knox during World War
II, it has remained there ever since.
- If By Land or By Sea – The document has also experienced
many modes of travel. Initially, like other parchment documents of the time,
the Declaration was probably stored in a rolled format. Each time the document
was used, it would have been unrolled and re-rolled. It likely traveled by light
wagon and by horseback with the Continental Congress it its early years. When
it was first brought to Washington, it traveled by boat, down the Delaware River
and Bay, out into the ocean, into the Chesapeake Bay, and up the Potomac to the
new capital city. During World War II, it was moved by Pullman train to Louisville,
KY and transferred under armed guard to Fort Knox for safety and protection.
- Line of Descent – Actress Reese Witherspoon is a direct descendant of John Witherspoon, one of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence. John Witherspoon is pictured in a Barry Faulkner Mural, entitled "The Declaration of Independence," which illustrates 28 delegates to the Continental Congress of 1776. This newly restored mural is hanging in the Rotunda of the National Archives.
About the National Archives:
The National Archives in Washington, DC reopened its Rotunda on September 18, 2003 to unveil the newly re-encased Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights. This marked the start of a whole new National Archives Experience that will educate and inspire Americans. The National Archives will celebrate the 228th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence with its traditional Fourth of July event, held on the steps of the National Archives on Constitution Avenue. The program theme, "Democracy Starts Here – the National Archives 4th of July Celebration," will include a day-long program of free family activities and patriotic music, beginning with the traditional dramatic reading of the Declaration of Independence by George Washington at 10 AM. For more information visit the National Archives online at www.archives.gov.
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