For some groups, like Native Americans, inherent rights were not recognized until the 20th century. With the 1924 Indian Citizenship Act, Native Americans became citizens of the United States.
Founded in the 1890s by Quanah Parker, the Native American Church Movement was adopted by a number of tribes. The movement and its practices, including the use of peyote, were considered protected by freedom of religion and officially acknowledged by Native American Religious Freedom Acts of 1994 and 1996.
In 1919, California Indians from over 30 different reservations formed the Mission Indian Federation, “to protect them against unjust laws- rules- and regulations.” Using the slogan, “Human Rights and Home Rule,” the Federation influenced the debate about Indian Rights in the United States, becoming experts at using the press to expose the plight of the California Indian.
Mission Indian Federation President Adam Castillo advocated for self-rule on reservations, including an Indian police force.
Over the years, the Bureau of Indian Affairs met with Mission Indian Federation leaders to hear their petitions and negotiate resolutions.